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Stereotype Threat and Enhancement

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 1 month ago

Notes on Stereotype Threat and Enhancement


Steele, C. M. and J. Aronson (1995) "Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(5):797-811.


Dijksterhuis, A. and A. van Knippenberg (1998) "The relation between perception and behavior, or how to win a game of trivial pursuit." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74(4):865-77.


Shih, M., T. L. Pittinsky and N. Ambady (1999) "Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance," Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00111

(Mentioned in Ariely (2008) Predictably Irrational though he writes "Shih" as "Shin")


Subjects are Asian-American women. Outcome is performance on a maths test. When given a task beforehand that primes them to think of race, they outperform controls (stereotype enhancement). When primed to think of gender, they underperform (stereotype threat).

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